Consiliul judeţean Buzău


 

 

       

 

   

 

B U Z Ă U    C O U N T Y

 

General Presentation:

 Population

Infrastructure

 Economic structure:

The Maps:

Geographical location

 

 

Natural resources

Administrative

The Surface

 

 

The flore

Touristic

The Climate

 

 

The fauna

Geographical

The Relief

 

 

 

Hidrographical

Main towns

 

 

 

Churches, Monasteries and Fortresses

Short History

 

 

 

Camps

Culture

 

 

 

 

          

General Presentation:

Geographical location: Buzau County is situated in the S-E  of Romania, between 44 44’- 45 49’northern latitude and 26 04’-27 26’ eastern longitude. Its neighbours are the counties of Brasov and Covasna in the N-W, Vrancea in the N-E, Braila in the E, Ialomita in the S and Prahova in the W.

 

Buzau County is included in the Region of Development 2 S-E, with the center in Braila.

The links of the county with the other areas in the country:

 

§          the European Road E 85 (or the National Road 2) from Bucharest or from Suceava, Bacau, Focsani;

§          the National Road 1B to Ploiesti;

§          the National Road 10 to Brasov (route on the Valley of Buzau);

§          the National Road 2B to Braila;

§          the railways-line 500- of  European importance (Bucharest-Ploiesti-Buzau-Focsani-Bacau-Suceava).

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The surface of the county is of 6.102,6 km2 ( 2.6 per cent from the county’s surface). Buzau county lies over the largest part of the hydrographical reservoir of Buzau river which springs from the Carpathians. Buzau County combines harmoniously all the relief forms: in the North, one can see the Mountains of Buzau; in the South there is the plain, part of the Romanian Plain, and in the centre, there is a region of hills with orchards. Some hills take the way down to South, getting a south-mediterranean climate propitious for viticulture, the region of Pietroasele being famous for its wines.

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The climate is temperate-continental, the same as in the whole country, differing in terms of relief ( the north wind is prevailing during the entire year, coming from north-east and south-east, but also the south wind, from south-west, bringing drought and heat in  the summer, high temperatures  in the winter, therefore influencing the climate of the county). The average temperatures vary between 12ºC and 14ºC. The maximum temperatures are registered in July, up to 37ºC, while the minimum temperatures are registered in February -26ºC. The annual average quantities of rainfall vary between 400mm and 500mm.

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The relief is varied and disposed in three steps, from north-west to south-east. Therefore, in the North there are the Mountains of Buzau and Vrancea ( Penteleu Peak-1772 m and Lacauti Peak-1777 m), then in the centre there are the  Subcarpathian hills ( Burdusoaia, Ciolanu-Magura, Istrita of 754 m), and in the South, the plain area of the Romanian Plain and Buzau Plain ( with 80 m, western inclination from north-west, and eastern from west to south), Gherghitei Plain, Ramnicului Plain.

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Main towns: Buzau county contains 86 administrative centres which are grouped as  follows:

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Short history: It was a hearth of permanent living since the most ancient times and on the land of Buzau succeeded all the material cultures found on the places lived by the Romanians. Tools and bone weapons or grinded stone were discovered in some places in the county, and also ceramics from the Neolithic and Bronze Age belonging to the cultures of Boian, Gumesti and Monteoru. The vestiges dating from the Bronze Age were discovered in the hilly area, and together with the ruins of the roman camp from Pietroasele and with other Dacian dwellings they are a strong testimony of the living on these places. The name Mousaios ( Buzau) was mentioned for the first time in written, in a letter of Dobrogea governer sent to Vasile the Great, the bishop of Capadochia, in the year 376 A.C. The document certifies the existence, on the river sides of Mousaios, of an urban dwelling ( polis) also named Mousaios ( Buzau). The document is to be found in the Vatican’s library.

                                     

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Culture: Buzau county is also the birth place of many personalities who activated in the fields of politics, literature, art, architecture, science. Among them the unionists and the revolutionists of 1848 Scarlat Voinescu, Costache Ciochinescu, Neagu Benescu, Petru Suciu Muresan or Dimitrie Racovita are dustinguishable. As far as painting is concerned, an outstanding figure was Nicolae Teodorescu, the headmaster of the school of painters, founded at Buzau in 1831, his nephew Gheorghe Tatarescu being one of the students; Ion Andreescu, teacher in Buzau between 1872-1878; Stefan Popescu; Grigore Negosanu; Constantin Petrescu-Dragoe; Adina-Paula Moscu and Alexandru Moscu; the musicians Nicolae and Maria Severeanu; the teacher Ioan Vicol; the pianist George Moscu, the barytone Aurelian Costescu Duca, Nicu Poenaru and the unique Nicolae Leonard, who spent his childhood in Buzau since he was six. There are also worth mentioning the well-known followers of Thalia, Nicolae Niculescu-Buzau, Nicolae Petre Rusu-Ciucurete, Vladimir Maximilian, George Ciprian, the patron of the professional theatre of Buzau ( founded in 1995, inaugurated on April 5th 1996).

In the field of literature, beginning with Mitrofan and Dionisie Romano, bishops, and continuing with Vasile Carlova, the first modernist poet, there are also worth mentioning Vasile Voiculescu, Ion Caraion, Ion Baiesu, Radu Carneci, Laurentiu Ulici, Passionaria Stoicescu, Denisa Comanescu-Prelipceanu and many others. Science is wonderfully represented by famous scholars with important contribution in their fields. Nicolae Vaschide, who became director at Sorbona, the universitary professor Constantin Sudeteanu, the academicians Radu Vladescu and Traian Savulescu, the famous eye-specialist Nicolae Manolescu and last but not least the laureate of Nobel Prize for medicine, George Emil Palade, brilliant student of the “National College Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu”.

In Buzau were founded and functioned cultural associations and groupings, from which we mention, the Atheneum subsidiary, in 1893; the first teachers association “Solidarity” ( 1882), the germ of  the national association; literary, musical and scientific groupings, making of Buzau an important centre among the cultural centres in the country. An intense political life was registered here, as in Buzau were founded and functioned branches of the majority of the political parties known - the Conservative Party (February 19th 1902), the Peasant Party (December 30th 1918), the National Peasant Party (1927), the National Liberal Party (1882), the Populist Party, the Natinal Agrarian Party, the National Christian Party, the Socialist Party and others. In time there were a harsh political competition, frictions and even conflicts ended in the victory of the best. Among the political men often evoked in the documents of the time, there are worth mentioning the conservatives Alexandru Marghiloman and Emil Teodoru, the followers of the Peasant Party Anton Filoti, Apostol Albu, D. Serbescu-Lopatari, Vasile Antonescu, Pompiliu Ioanitescu, ex subsecretary of state in the Ministry of Home Affairs, the liberals Constantin Angelescu, Justin Stanescu, George Dunca, Alexandru Ionescu Bradeanu, Mircea Catuneanu, a.s.o.

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 Population:

According to the official preliminary results of the census on the 18th of March 2002, the stable population of Buzau County numbers 496.214 inhabitants ( 242.311 men and 253.903 women), from which 38.65% live in municipalities and towns and 61.35% in the rural areas.

The active population of the county was of 177.783 persons, the employed 140.014 persons and the inactive population being of 318.431 persons. According to the activity field  there were  39.548 craftsmen ( 22.24% from the active population total), 32.327 workers in agriculture, sylviculture and fishing (18.18% from the active population total ), 18.968 machines, equipments and assemblage operators, 16.342 workers in services, trade and assimilated, 15.707 technicians,  foremen and assimilated, 14.413 unskilled workers, 11.125 specialists in intelectual and scientific affairs, 6.998 Civil Servants, 3.236 persons working in the legislative field and leadership, 1.283 employed in the army and 17.868 unemployed.

At the same date, the ethnical structure of the population, according to the free declaration of the persons interrogated at the census, numbered 481.272 Romanians (98.98% from the total), 14.446 Roma population (2.9%), 153 Hungarians, 43 Germans, 37 Turks, 27 Italians, 22 Russian, 21 Poles, 20 Jews, 18 Ucrainers, 7 Serbians, 4 Bulgarians, 3 Tartars, 3 Slovenians, 3 Chinese and 135 of other ethnies.

The religious structure of the population numbered at the 18th of March 2002: 490.830 of Orthodox religion, 2.948 Protestants of the 7th day, 540 Roman-Catholics, 516 of Pentecostal religion, 453 Christians following the Gospel, 243 of Evangelic religion, 139 Baptists, 86 Greek-Catholics, 72 Moslems, 54 Protestants, 22 of Mosic religion, 135 of other religions, 70 without religion, 41 Atheists and 65 of undeclared religion.

The population registered in the school system was at the same date of 77.797 persons, from which 5.070 persons in universities, 1812 in post-secondary and vocational schools, 48.869 in secondary schools ( 15.503 in high schools, 4.532 in vocational schools and 28.834 in middle schools) and 22.016 in primary schools.

In Buzau County there are:

In the health system the public services are grouped as follows:

As traditional popular and religious holidays in Buzau County there are worth mentioning:

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Infrastructure:

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Economic structure:

Natural resources:

Among the resources of the mountains, the main treasure is the wood. The subsoil is rich in deposits of organic origin ( oil, coal, amber, limestone) and of mineral origin (salt, gritstone, clay, sands, gravel). There are also worth mentioning: natural gases, quartz sands and diatomite, mineral springs, fertile soils, forests, lawns, kinegetic resources, hydroenergetical and eolian potential.

The forests make one of the most important natural resources of the county. The mountainous area condenses the largest part of the forests and at the same time, the most considerable mass of wood, the flora and fauna characteristic to this area. Forest massives are extended from Lacauti Summit to Siriu Peak.

We cannot forget the hydrographic potential, represented by Buzau river, on the course of which there are two hydroenergetic stations: the dam from Siriu, with the hydroelectric power station of Nehoiasu and the dam of Candesti, with the hydroenergetic station Candesti-Vernesti-Simileasca ( which provides water for “ The Irrigation System of Buzau Eastern and Western Plain”). There are also 5 hydroelectric power stations of low voltage, positioned on the rivers Basca fara Cale, Basca cu Cale, Basca and Slanic.

Among the subsoil resources, the oil is at present the main richness of the county. Besides oil, in the S-E of the county there are considerable deposits of natural gases, exploited for aproximately 40 years.

The existing coal is of low heating power, in small quantities, which makes it unexploitable. The presence of limestone in the Subcarpathians ( Istrita, Magura) gave the opportunity of an early exploitation. There are numerous quarries, many of them of local interest. The most important are those of Ciuta and Viperesti.

In Patarlagele are exploited quartz sands and diatomite.

In the N-E of Buzau municipality ( Simileasca), in Berca ( Satuc) and in the S-W  of Ramnicu-Sarat municipality is exploited the high quality clay, largely used in the industry of construction materials. On the river bed of Buzau, Ramnic and others rivers there are considerable deposits of gravel and sands, in many places there are ballasts with a high productive rate.

The geological prospectings and the drilling works performed with a view to tracking down new oil deposits, revealed the presence of salt deposits, at various depths, in Manzalesti, Bisoca, Bratilesti, Goidesti, which can be exploited in the future. Besides these,  gypsum and amber are also present in the subsoil of the county. The mineral waters ( the sulphurous, the ferruginous and the chlorine-sodical ones), sometimes rich in iodine, are to be found in Siriu, Nehoiu, Monteoru, Fisici, Balta Alba, Strajeni, Nifon, Lopatari. The springs from Siriu-Bai, with an average temperature of 30ºC and a quantity of rainfall of almost 4000l/h give the opportunity for rheumatical treatment. The mud from Balta Alba, with a low percentage of organic substances and a salts concentration of 12471,9 mg/kg ( the chlorine, sodium and magnesium ions are prevailing), although well-known for a very long time for its therapeutical value, is used to a smaller extent.

Among the natural resources of the county are also distinguishable the hydroenergetic and eolian potential, the fertile soils, the lawns and the kinegetic richness.

 

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The flore differs and presents specific elements according to the three types of relief: plain, hill, mountain.

In the plain area there is a vegetation characteristic to the steppe and the sylvo-steppe. In the steppe the vegetation was modified by man and replaced on large surfaces with cultivated plants. The lands, except for the commons, valleys and salty soils, are cultivated with cereals, sunflower, vegetables and less fruit-trees and vineyard.

The natural vegetation is represented by grassy species: Artemisia austriaca, the tunny fish, the wormwood, the thistle, the milfoil, Stipa capillata, the teasel, the thorn, the bur.

On the cultivated lands and near them also grow plants with beautiful flowers: the poppy, the cornockle, the chicory, the camomile, the dandelion, the milfoil, the bindweed, some of them with therapeutical values. Very wide-spread are the orache and the shepherd’s purse.

       

(Creative Image foto)

In the steppe the wood vegetation is rare, represented especially by the accacia tree, the mulberry tree, the elm, the poplar, the lime tree.

     

(Creative Image foto)

In the sylvo-steppe, near the cultivated lands, there are small forests, reminiscences of the ancient forests, as the ones from Rusetu, Bradeanu, Valeanca, Buzau Crang, Frasinu, Spataru and those in the N-E of Ramnicu-Sarat.

In the S-W of Buzau municipality, in the plain area, there is the forest Spataru, floral reservation with a surface of 165ha. Here the ash tree (Fraxinus pallisae) is prevailing together with the oak (Quercus robur), Quercus pedunculiflora, Acer campestre, the wild pear tree (Pirus piraster), the maple tree (Acer tartaricum).

     

(Creative Image foto)

Species similar to the ones in Spataru forest also vegetate in Frasinu forest, another reservation, with a surface of 158ha, a sylvo-steppe type of forest. Only here live together the two types of ash tree: Fraxinus palissae and Fraxinus angustifolia.

Bradeanu forest, reservation with a surface of 2,1ha, represents a reminiscence of the wood vegetation from the sylvo-steppe of Muntenia, belonging, from the fitogeographical point of view, to the forests of gray oak.

In the subcarpathians and the mountain area there are forests disposed in “ floors” as follows: the oak floor, the beech floor, the coniferous trees floor and the shrubs or subalpine floor.

The subcarpathians area is covered mainly with oak mixed on the altitude with the beech. Under the influence of the föhn and owing to the specific topoclimatic conditions, in the hilly area one can find species of submediterranean influence: Carpinus orientalis, Cotinus coggyria, Syringa vulgaris, Fraxinus ornus, Quercus pubescens, Quercus cerris, Quercus fraenetto, Euphorbia steposa, Amigdalus nana, Ephedra distachia, Salvia nutana, Astragalus dasyantus, Echinops ruthenicus.

From the altitude of 600 m begins the region of high hills and, at the same time, the oak tree which reaches the altitude of aproximately 1200 m. Here, besides Fagus silvatica also grow the hornbeam, the lime tree, the maple tree, the byrch tree, Viburum lantana, Rhamnus frangula and the liana Hedera helix and Clematis Vitalba.

While in the thicket of the beech  forest are few flower plants, in the clearings there are plenty of species: Gladiolus imbricatus, Cynanchum vincetoxicum, Galium odoratum, Euphorbia amigdaloides, Mercurialis perennis: in the hay fields on Basca Mare: the blackberry bush (Rubus sulcatus), the strawberry bush (Fragaria vesca), Pteridium aquilinum a.s.o.

In the beech  and the fir forests, in shady and humid areas, grow various species of mushrooms, moss and fern ( Driopteris filix-mas, Equisetum).

In some areas over a half of the trees is represented by the fir. At this altitude, in the beech forest grow anemones, Asarum europaeum, Allium ursinum, the red elder tree. In places with high level of humidity are to be found athyrium filix-femina, Myosotis palustre, Filipendula ulmaria, Equisetum silvaticum, Mnium punctatum, Fissidens cristatus – water plants.

The last floor, the subalpine area, is represented by vast lawns with grass and bushes. On the northern slopes Juniperus communis is prevailing. On the southern and south-eastern slopes grow the blueberry bush ( Vaccinium myrtillus) and at the foot , on abrupt and humid lands – the green alder tree (Alnus viridis), which creates here massive groups, with a developed root system, which prevents the erosions and slidings.

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The fauna of Buzau doesn’t own peculiar species to live only in this area, but thanks to the presence in the county of all relief forms, it is very varied, making up an interesting ecological and kinegetic picture.

Among the invertebrate terrestrial animals met here there is a series of jellyfish (Helicella, Helix pomatia, Ena montana), insects, among which the carpathic scorpion (Euscorpius carpathicus) is to be noticed.

       

(Creative Image foto)

The terrestrial vertebrates are represented by amphibians (the brown frog, the salamander, the green frog, the red mountain frog), reptiles ( the gray lzard, the green lizard, the mountain lizard, unpoisonous snakes – rarely the viper), birds (the sparrow, the owl, the hawk, the oriole, the jay, the hoopoe, the titmouse, the woodcock, the cuckoo, the mottled woodpecker, the Romanian green woodpecker, rarely met in the rest of the country, the nightingale, the blackbird, the raven ( Corbus corax)– protected by the law, the merlin, the mountain eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) - protected by the law, the mountain cock ( Tetrao urogallue – protected), mammals ( the ground squirrel, the hamster, the mole, the bat, the field mouse, the forest mouse, the polecat, the rabbit, the squirrel, the wild cat, the lynx, the badger, the wolf, the fox, the wild boar, the stag, the bear (Ursus arctos – protected).

In the running waters and the lakes there are many species of worms, jelly-fish, shell-fish, amphibians and fishes (the crap, the perch and even the trout).

By the way of use, the area of the county is divided into:

1. The agricultural area

4.023,7

from which:

-          arable

-          lawns

-          hay fields

-          vineyards and wine-growing nurseries

-       orchards and fruit-growing nurseries

 

2.565,6

896,4

287,5

161,9

112,3

 

 

2. The non-agricultural area

2.078,9

from which:

-          forests

-          waters

-          unproductive

-          roads

-       constructions      

 

1.637,1

113,2

82,3

89,7

156,6

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